Publications

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Publications in peer reviewed journals

10 Publications found
  • Highly variable mRNA half-life time within marine bacterial taxa and functional genes.

    Steiner PA, De Corte D, Geijo J, Mena C, Yokokawa T, Rattei T, Herndl GJ, Sintes E
    2019 - Environ. Microbiol., in press

    Abstract: 

    Messenger RNA can provide valuable insights into the variability of metabolic processes of microorganisms. However, due to uncertainties that include the stability of RNA, its application for activity profiling of environmental samples is questionable. We explored different factors affecting the decay rate of transcripts of three marine bacterial isolates using qPCR and determined mRNA half-life time of specific bacterial taxa and of functional genes by metatranscriptomics of a coastal environmental prokaryotic community. The half-life time of transcripts from 11 genes from bacterial isolates ranged from 1 to 46 min. About 80% of the analysed transcripts exhibited half-live times shorter than 10 min. Significant differences were found in the half-life time between mRNA and rRNA. The half-life time of mRNA obtained from a coastal metatranscriptome ranged from 9 to 400 min. The shortest half-life times of the metatranscriptome corresponded to transcripts from the same clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) in all bacterial classes. The prevalence of short mRNA half-life time in genes related to defence mechanisms and motility indicate a tight connection of RNA decay rate to environmental stressors. The short half-life time of RNA and its high variability needs to be considered when assessing metatranscriptomes especially in environmental samples.

  • Thermal stress modifies the marine sponge virome.

    Laffy PW, Botté ES, Wood-Charlson EM, Weynberg KD, Rattei T, Webster NS
    2019 - Environ Microbiol Rep, in press

    Abstract: 

    Marine sponges can form stable partnerships with a wide diversity of microbes and viruses, and this high intraspecies symbiont specificity makes them ideal models for exploring how host-associated viromes respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we exposed the abundant Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloiedes odorabile to elevated seawater temperature for 48 h and utilised a metaviromic approach to assess the response of the associated viral community. An increase in endogenous retro-transcribing viruses within the Caulimorviridae and Retroviridae families was detected within the first 12 h of exposure to 32 °C, and a 30-fold increase in retro-transcribing viruses was evident after 48 h at 32 °C. Thermally stressed sponges also exhibited a complete loss of ssDNA viruses which were prevalent in field samples and sponges from the control temperature treatment. Despite these viromic changes, functional analysis failed to detect any loss or gain of auxiliary metabolic genes, indicating that viral communities are not providing a direct competitive advantage to their host under thermal stress. In contrast, endogenous sponge retro-transcribing viruses appear to be replicating under thermal stress, and consistent with retroviral infections in other organisms, may be contributing to the previously described rapid decline in host health evident at elevated temperature.

  • Characterization of a thaumarchaeal symbiont that drives incomplete nitrification in the tropical sponge Ianthella basta.

    Moeller FU, Webster NS, Herbold CW, Behnam F, Domman D, Albertsen M, Mooshammer M, Markert S, Turaev D, Becher D, Rattei T, Schweder T, Richter A, Watzka M, Nielsen PH, Wagner M
    2019 - Environ. Microbiol., in press

    Abstract: 

    Marine sponges represent one of the few eukaryotic groups that frequently harbour symbiotic members of the Thaumarchaeota, which are important chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizers in many environments. However, in most studies, direct demonstration of ammonia-oxidation by these archaea within sponges is lacking, and little is known about sponge-specific adaptations of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Here, we characterized the thaumarchaeal symbiont of the marine sponge Ianthella basta using metaproteogenomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, qPCR and isotope-based functional assays. 'Candidatus Nitrosospongia ianthellae' is only distantly related to cultured AOA. It is an abundant symbiont that is solely responsible for nitrite formation from ammonia in I. basta that surprisingly does not harbour nitrite-oxidizing microbes. Furthermore, this AOA is equipped with an expanded set of extracellular subtilisin-like proteases, a metalloprotease unique among archaea, as well as a putative branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter. This repertoire is strongly indicative of a mixotrophic lifestyle and is (with slight variations) also found in other sponge-associated, but not in free-living AOA. We predict that this feature as well as an expanded and unique set of secreted serpins (protease inhibitors), a unique array of eukaryotic-like proteins, and a DNA-phosporothioation system, represent important adaptations of AOA to life within these ancient filter-feeding animals.

  • A proteotranscriptomic study of silk-producing glands from the orb-weaving spiders.

    Dos Santos-Pinto JRA, Esteves FG, Sialana FJ, Ferro M, Smidak R, Rares LC, Nussbaumer T, Rattei T, Bilban M, Bacci Júnior M, Palma MS, Lubec G
    2019 - Mol Omics, 4: 256-270

    Abstract: 

    Orb-weaving spiders can produce different silk fibers, which constitute outstanding materials characterized by their high strength and elasticity. Researchers have tried to reproduce the fibers of these proteins synthetically and/or by using recombinant DNA technology, but only a few of the natural physicochemical and biophysical properties have been obtained to date. Female orb-web-spiders present seven silk-glands, which synthesize the spidroins and a series of other proteins, which interact with the spidroins, resulting in silk fibers with notable physicochemical properties. Despite the recognized importance of the silk-glands for understanding how the fibers are produced and processed, the investigation of these glands is at a nascent stage. In the current study we present the assembled transcriptome of silk-producing glands from the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes, as well as develop a large-scale proteomic approach for in-depth analyses of silk-producing glands. The present investigation revealed an extensive repertoire of hitherto undescribed proteins involved in silk secretion and processing, such as prevention of degradation during the silk spinning process, transportation, protection against proteolytic autolysis and against oxidative stress, molecular folding and stabilization, and post-translational modifications. Comparative phylogenomic-level evolutionary analyses revealed orthologous genes among three groups of silk-producing organisms - (i) Araneomorphae spiders, (ii) Mygalomorphae spiders, and (iii) silk-producing insects. A common orthologous gene, which was annotated as silk gland factor-3 is present among all species analysed. This protein belongs to a transcription factor family, that is important and related to the development of the silk apparatus synthesis in the silk glands of silk-producing arthropods.

  • Proteome Changes Paralleling the Olfactory Conditioning in the Forager Honey Bee and Provision of a Brain Proteomics Dataset.

    Sialana FJ, Menegasso ARS, Smidak R, Hussein AM, Zavadil M, Rattei T, Lubec G, Palma MS, Lubec J
    2019 - Proteomics, e1900094

    Abstract: 

    The olfactory conditioning of the bee proboscis extension reflex (PER) has been extensively used as a paradigm in associative learning of invertebrates but with limited molecular investigations. To investigate which protein changes are linked to olfactory conditioning, we applied a non-sophisticated conditioning model using the PER in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Foraging honeybees were assigned into three groups based on the reflex behaviour and training: conditioned using 2-octanone (PER-conditioned), and sucrose and water controls. Thereafter, the brain synaptosomal proteins were isolated and analyzed by quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling (TMT). Additionally, the complex proteome dataset of the bee brain was generated with a total number of 5411 protein groups, including key players in neurotransmitter signalling. The most significant categories affected during olfactory conditioning were associated with "SNARE interactions in vesicular transport" (BET1 and VAMP7), ABC transporters, and fatty acid degradation pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Conserved Secondary Structures in Viral mRNAs.

    Kiening M, Ochsenreiter R, Hellinger HJ, Rattei T, Hofacker I, Frishman D
    2019 - Viruses, 5: in press

    Abstract: 

    RNA secondary structure in untranslated and protein coding regions has been shown to play an important role in regulatory processes and the viral replication cycle. While structures in non-coding regions have been investigated extensively, a thorough overview of the structural repertoire of protein coding mRNAs, especially for viruses, is lacking. Secondary structure prediction of large molecules, such as long mRNAs remains a challenging task, as the contingent of structures a sequence can theoretically fold into grows exponentially with sequence length. We applied a structure prediction pipeline to Viral Orthologous Groups that first identifies the local boundaries of potentially structured regions and subsequently predicts their functional importance. Using this procedure, the orthologous groups were split into structurally homogenous subgroups, which we call subVOGs. This is the first compilation of potentially functional conserved RNA structures in viral coding regions, covering the complete RefSeq viral database. We were able to recover structural elements from previous studies and discovered a variety of novel structured regions. The subVOGs are available through our web resource RNASIV (RNA structure in viruses; http://rnasiv.bio.wzw.tum.de).

  • The horse Y chromosome as an informative marker for tracing sire lines.

    Felkel S, Vogl C, Rigler D, Dobretsberger V, Chowdhary BP, Distl O, Fries R, Jagannathan V, Janečka JE, Leeb T, Lindgren G, McCue M, Metzger J, Neuditschko M, Rattei T, Raudsepp T, Rieder S, Rubin CJ, Schaefer R, Schlötterer C, Thaller G, Tetens J, Velie B, Brem G, Wallner B
    2019 - Sci Rep, 1: 6095

    Abstract: 

    Analysis of the Y chromosome is the best-established way to reconstruct paternal family history in humans. Here, we applied fine-scaled Y-chromosomal haplotyping in horses with biallelic markers and demonstrate the potential of our approach to address the ancestry of sire lines. We de novo assembled a draft reference of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome from Illumina short reads and then screened 5.8 million basepairs for variants in 130 specimens from intensively selected and rural breeds and nine Przewalski's horses. Among domestic horses we confirmed the predominance of a young'crown haplogroup' in Central European and North American breeds. Within the crown, we distinguished 58 haplotypes based on 211 variants, forming three major haplogroups. In addition to two previously characterised haplogroups, one observed in Arabian/Coldblooded and the other in Turkoman/Thoroughbred horses, we uncovered a third haplogroup containing Iberian lines and a North African Barb Horse. In a genealogical showcase, we distinguished the patrilines of the three English Thoroughbred founder stallions and resolved a historic controversy over the parentage of the horse 'Galopin', born in 1872. We observed two nearly instantaneous radiations in the history of Central and Northern European Y-chromosomal lineages that both occurred after domestication 5,500 years ago.

  • Man-made microbial resistances in built environments.

    Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Zojer M, Bogumil D, Mizrahi I, Rattei T, Martinez JL, Berg G
    2019 - Nat Commun, 1: 968

    Abstract: 

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to global public health, but little is known about the effects of microbial control on the microbiota and its associated resistome. Here we compare the microbiota present on surfaces of clinical settings with other built environments. Using state-of-the-art metagenomics approaches and genome and plasmid reconstruction, we show that increased confinement and cleaning is associated with a loss of microbial diversity and a shift from Gram-positive bacteria, such as Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, to Gram-negative such as Proteobacteria. Moreover, the microbiome of highly maintained built environments has a different resistome when compared to other built environments, as well as a higher diversity in resistance genes. Our results highlight that the loss of microbial diversity correlates with an increase in resistance, and the need for implementing strategies to restore bacterial diversity in certain built environments.

  • Long-Term Transcriptional Activity at Zero Growth of a Cosmopolitan Rare Biosphere Member.

    Hausmann B, Pelikan C, Rattei T, Loy A, Pester M
    2019 - mBio, 1: in press

    Abstract: 

    Microbial diversity in the environment is mainly concealed within the rare biosphere (all species with <0.1% relative abundance). While dormancy explains a low-abundance state very well, the mechanisms leading to rare but active microorganisms remain elusive. We used environmental systems biology to genomically and transcriptionally characterize " Desulfosporosinus infrequens," a low-abundance sulfate-reducing microorganism cosmopolitan to freshwater wetlands, where it contributes to cryptic sulfur cycling. We obtained its near-complete genome by metagenomics of acidic peat soil. In addition, we analyzed anoxic peat soil incubated under -like conditions for 50 days by -targeted qPCR and metatranscriptomics. The population stayed at a constant low abundance under all incubation conditions, averaging 1.2 × 10 16S rRNA gene copies per cm³ soil. In contrast, transcriptional activity of " Desulfosporosinus infrequens" increased at day 36 by 56- to 188-fold when minor amendments of acetate, propionate, lactate, or butyrate were provided with sulfate, compared to the no-substrate-control. Overall transcriptional activity was driven by expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, energy metabolism, and stress response but not by expression of genes encoding cell growth-associated processes. Since our results did not support growth of these highly active microorganisms in terms of biomass increase or cell division, they had to invest their sole energy for maintenance, most likely counterbalancing acidic pH conditions. This finding explains how a rare biosphere member can contribute to a biogeochemically relevant process while remaining in a zero-growth state over a period of 50 days. The microbial rare biosphere represents the largest pool of biodiversity on Earth and constitutes, in sum of all its members, a considerable part of a habitat's biomass. Dormancy or starvation is typically used to explain the persistence of low-abundance microorganisms in the environment. We show that a low-abundance microorganism can be highly transcriptionally active while remaining in a zero-growth state for at least 7 weeks. Our results provide evidence that this zero growth at a high cellular activity state is driven by maintenance requirements. We show that this is true for a microbial keystone species, in particular a cosmopolitan but permanently low-abundance sulfate-reducing microorganism in wetlands that is involved in counterbalancing greenhouse gas emissions. In summary, our results provide an important step forward in understanding time-resolved activities of rare biosphere members relevant for ecosystem functions.

  • Plasmid DNA contaminant in molecular reagents.

    Wally N, Schneider M, Thannesberger J, Kastner MT, Bakonyi T, Indik S, Rattei T, Bedarf J, Hildebrand F, Law J, Jovel J, Steininger C
    2019 - Sci Rep, 1: 1652

    Abstract: 

    Background noise in metagenomic studies is often of high importance and its removal requires extensive post-analytic, bioinformatics filtering. This is relevant as significant signals may be lost due to a low signal-to-noise ratio. The presence of plasmid residues, that are frequently present in reagents as contaminants, has not been investigated so far, but may pose a substantial bias. Here we show that plasmid sequences from different sources are omnipresent in molecular biology reagents. Using a metagenomic approach, we identified the presence of the (pol) of equine infectious anemia virus in human samples and traced it back to the expression plasmid used for generation of a commercial reverse transcriptase. We found fragments of multiple other expression plasmids in human samples as well as commercial polymerase preparations. Plasmid contamination sources included production chain of molecular biology reagents as well as contamination of reagents from environment or human handling of samples and reagents. Retrospective analyses of published metagenomic studies revealed an inaccurate signal-to-noise differentiation. Hence, the plasmid sequences that seem to be omnipresent in molecular biology reagents may misguide conclusions derived from genomic/metagenomics datasets and thus also clinical interpretations. Critical appraisal of metagenomic data sets for the possibility of plasmid background noise is required to identify reliable and significant signals.

Book chapters and other publications

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