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Publications in peer reviewed journals

6 Publications found
  • Reef Invertebrate Viromics: Diversity, Host-Specificity & Functional Capacity.

    Laffy PW, Wood-Charlson EM, Turaev D, Jutz S, Pascelli C, Botté ES, Bell SC, Peirce T, Weynberg KD, van Oppen MJH, Rattei T, Webster NS
    2018 - Environ. Microbiol., in press


    Recent metagenomic analyses have revealed a high diversity of viruses in the pelagic ocean and uncovered clear habitat-specific viral distribution patterns. Conversely, similar insights into the composition, host-specificity and function of viruses associated with marine organisms have been limited by challenges associated with sampling and computational analysis. Here we performed targeted viromic analysis of six coral reef invertebrate species and their surrounding seawater to deliver taxonomic and functional profiles of viruses associated with reef organisms. Sponges and corals host species-specific viral assemblages with low sequence identity to known viral genomes. While core viral genes involved in capsid formation, tail structure and infection mechanisms were observed across all reef samples, auxiliary genes including those involved in herbicide resistance and viral pathogenesis pathways such as host immune suppression were differentially enriched in reef hosts. Utilising a novel OTU based assessment, we also show a prevalence of dsDNA viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae, Caudovirales and Phycodnaviridae in reef environments and further highlight the abundance of ssDNA viruses belonging to the Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Bidnaviridae and Microviridae in reef invertebrates. These insights into coral reef viruses provide an important framework for future research into how viruses contribute to the health and evolution of reef organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Great Cause-Small Effect: Undeclared Genetically Engineered Orange Petunias Harbor an Inefficient Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase.

    Haselmair-Gosch C, Miosic S, Nitarska D, Roth BL, Walliser B, Paltram R, Lucaciu RC, Eidenberger L, Rattei T, Olbricht K, Stich K, Halbwirth H
    2018 - Front Plant Sci, 149


    A recall campaign for commercial, orange flowering petunia varieties in spring 2017 caused economic losses worldwide. The orange varieties were identified as undeclared genetically engineered (GE)-plants, harboring a maize dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (), which was used in former scientific transgenic breeding attempts to enable formation of orange pelargonidin derivatives from the precursor dihydrokaempferol (DHK) in petunia. How and when the cDNA entered the commercial breeding process is unclear. We provide an in-depth analysis of three orange petunia varieties, released by breeders from three countries, with respect to their transgenic construct, transcriptomes, anthocyanin composition, and flavonoid metabolism at the level of selected enzymes and genes. The two possible sources of the cDNA in the undeclared GE-petunia can be discriminated by PCR. A special version of the gene, the type 2 allele, is present, which includes, at the 3'-end, an additional 144 bp segment from the non-viral transposable sequence, which does not add any functional advantage with respect to DFR activity. This unequivocally points at the first scientific GE-petunia from the 1980s as the source, which is further underpinned e.g., by the presence of specific restriction sites, parts of the untranslated sequences, and the same arrangement of the building blocks of the transformation plasmid used. Surprisingly, however, the GE-petunia cannot be distinguished from native red and blue varieties by their ability to convert DHK in common enzyme assays, as DHK is an inadequate substrate for both the petunia and maize DFR. Recombinant maize DFR underpins the low DHK acceptance, and, thus, the strikingly limited suitability of the protein for a transgenic approach for breeding pelargonidin-based flower color. The effect of single amino acid mutations on the substrate specificity of DFRs is demonstrated. Expression of the gene is generally lower than the petunia expression despite being under the control of the strong, constitutive p promoter. We show that a rare constellation in flavonoid metabolism-absence or strongly reduced activity of both flavonol synthase and B-ring hydroxylating enzymes-allows pelargonidin formation in the presence of DFRs with poor DHK acceptance.

  • Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.

    Hausmann B, Pelikan C, Herbold CW, Köstlbacher S, Albertsen M, Eichorst SA, Glavina Del Rio T, Huemer M, Nielsen PH, Rattei T, Stingl U, Tringe SG, Trojan D, Wentrup C, Woebken D, Pester M, Loy A
    2018 - ISME J, in press


    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  • Corrigendum: Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea.

    Bowers RM, Kyrpides NC, Stepanauskas R, Harmon-Smith M, Doud D, Reddy TBK, Schulz F, Jarett J, Rivers AR, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Tringe SG, Ivanova NN, Copeland A, Clum A, Becraft ED, Malmstrom RR, Birren B, Podar M, Bork P, Weinstock GM, Garrity GM, Dodsworth JA, Yooseph S, Sutton G, Glöckner FO, Gilbert JA, Nelson WC, Hallam SJ, Jungbluth SP, Ettema TJG, Tighe S, Konstantinidis KT, Liu WT, Baker BJ, Rattei T, Eisen JA, Hedlund B, McMahon KD, Fierer N, Knight R, Finn R, Cochrane G, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Tyson GW, Rinke C, Lapidus A, Meyer F, Yilmaz P, Parks DH, Eren AM, Schriml L, Banfield JF, Hugenholtz P, Woyke T
    2018 - Nat. Biotechnol., 2: 196
  • Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Felkel S, Vogl C, Rigler D, Jagannathan V, Leeb T, Fries R, Neuditschko M, Rieder S, Velie B, Lindgren G, Rubin CJ, Schlötterer C, Rattei T, Brem G, Wallner B
    2018 - Anim. Genet., 1: 90-93


    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages.

  • Genomic insights into the Acidobacteria reveal strategies for their success in terrestrial environments.

    Eichorst SA, Trojan D, Roux S, Herbold C, Rattei T, Woebken D
    2018 - Environ. Microbiol., 3: 1041-1063


    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant and ubiquitous across soils. We performed a large-scale comparative genome analysis spanning subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 23 (n = 24) with the goal to identify features to help explain their prevalence in soils and understand their ecophysiology. Our analysis revealed that bacteriophage integration events along with transposable and mobile elements influenced the structure and plasticity of these genomes. Low- and high-affinity respiratory oxygen reductases were detected in multiple genomes, suggesting the capacity for growing across different oxygen gradients. Among many genomes, the capacity to use a diverse collection of carbohydrates, as well as inorganic and organic nitrogen sources (such as via extracellular peptidases), was detected - both advantageous traits in environments with fluctuating nutrient environments. We also identified multiple soil acidobacteria with the potential to scavenge atmospheric concentrations of H , now encompassing mesophilic soil strains within the subdivision 1 and 3, in addition to a previously identified thermophilic strain in subdivision 4. This large-scale acidobacteria genome analysis reveal traits that provide genomic, physiological and metabolic versatility, presumably allowing flexibility and versatility in the challenging and fluctuating soil environment.

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