• Our aim is to advance our understanding of biological systems,

    ranging from single species to multi-species systems and ecosystems,

    based on data from large-scale bioanalytical methods.

  • We develop, improve and apply

    computational methods

    for the interpretation of molecular information in biology.

  • We establish and analyse

    quantitative mathematical models.

CUBE News

Latest publications

The origin and evolution of cell types.

Cell types are the basic building blocks of multicellular organisms and are extensively diversified in animals. Despite recent advances in characterizing cell types, classification schemes remain ambiguous. We propose an evolutionary definition of a cell type that allows cell types to be delineated and compared within and between species. Key to cell type identity are evolutionary changes in the 'core regulatory complex' (CoRC) of transcription factors, that make emergent sister cell types distinct, enable their independent evolution and regulate cell type-specific traits termed apomeres. We discuss the distinction between developmental and evolutionary lineages, and present a roadmap for future research.

Arendt D, Musser JM, Baker CV, Bergman A, Cepko C, Erwin DH, Pavličev M, Schlosser G, Widder S, Laubichler MD, Wagner GP
2016 - Nat. Rev. Genet., 12: 744-757

NVT: a fast and simple tool for the assessment of RNA-seq normalization strategies.

Measuring differential gene expression is a common task in the analysis of RNA-Seq data. To identify differentially expressed genes between two samples, it is crucial to normalize the datasets. While multiple normalization methods are available, all of them are based on certain assumptions that may or may not be suitable for the type of data they are applied on. Researchers therefore need to select an adequate normalization strategy for each RNA-Seq experiment. This selection includes exploration of different normalization methods as well as their comparison. Methods that agree with each other most likely represent realistic assumptions under the particular experimental conditions.
We developed the NVT package, which provides a fast and simple way to analyze and evaluate multiple normalization methods via visualization and representation of correlation values, based on a user-defined set of uniformly expressed genes.
The R package is freely available under https://github.com/Edert/NVT CONTACT: thomas.rattei@univie.ac.atSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Eder T, Grebien F, Rattei T
2016 - Bioinformatics, in press

Comprehensive Identification of Meningococcal Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs Required for Host Cell Colonization.

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia, affecting infants and adults worldwide. N. meningitidis is also a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and, as such, is highly adapted to its niche. During bacteremia, N. meningitidis gains access to the blood compartment, where it adheres to endothelial cells of blood vessels and causes dramatic vascular damage. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal niche and communication with the different human cell types is a major issue of the N. meningitidis life cycle that is poorly understood. Here, highly saturated random transposon insertion libraries of N. meningitidis were engineered, and the fitness of mutations during routine growth and that of colonization of endothelial and epithelial cells in a flow device were assessed in a transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) analysis. This allowed the identification of genes essential for bacterial growth and genes specifically required for host cell colonization. In addition, after having identified the small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) located in intergenic regions, the phenotypes associated with mutations in those sRNAs were defined. A total of 383 genes and 8 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were identified to be essential for growth, while 288 genes and 33 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were found to be specifically required for host cell colonization.
Meningococcal meningitis is a common cause of meningitis in infants and adults. Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is also a commensal bacterium of the nasopharynx and is carried by 3 to 30% of healthy humans. Under some unknown circumstances, N. meningitidis is able to invade the bloodstream and cause either meningitis or a fatal septicemia known as purpura fulminans. The onset of symptoms is sudden, and death can follow within hours. Although many meningococcal virulence factors have been identified, the mechanisms that allow the bacterium to switch from the commensal to pathogen state remain unknown. Therefore, we used a Tn-seq strategy coupled to high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies to find genes for proteins used by N. meningitidis to specifically colonize epithelial cells and primary brain endothelial cells. We identified 383 genes and 8 intergenic regions containing sRNAs essential for growth and 288 genes and 33 intergenic regions containing sRNAs required specifically for host cell colonization.

Capel E, Zomer AL, Nussbaumer T, Bole C, Izac B, Frapy E, Meyer J, Bouzinba-Ségard H, Bille E, Jamet A, Cavau A, Letourneur F, Bourdoulous S, Rattei T, Nassif X, Coureuil M
2016 - mBio, 4: in press